My Travel Resolution.
discover hidden myths, taste diverse food and sleep below a sky full of shooting stars and galaxies every night
One of the best trips to England that can be made is a complete circuit where you will discover the secrets and treasures of this majestic nation. From London to Liverpool, from Oxford to Cambridge, England is a country with whom you can fall in love at first sight. Do not hesitate to travel to England to enjoy a unique country that is full of history, culture and, above all, beauty.

For those of you looking to travel to the UK sometime down the road, be it for pleasure or business, make sure to visit these breathtaking places therein. The UK which is called a hub of academic writing help is home to some of the finest sightseeing locales and we have compiled a list for traveling to England.

1. The Needles, Isle of Wight

The chalk-like stacks, each of distinct nature rise out of the sea. They are mainly located on the west side of the island. The name is a reference to the fourth needle-like formation which existed in the past but then was destroyed due to a storm in 1764.

Durdle Door, Dorset images

2. Durdle Door, Dorset

This is a natural limestone arch and is spread over a beach that makes it a must see the place. Don’t go on its name, it is a beautiful spot but yes to some the name may come off as a bit ancient like it’s from 1000 years ago.

Cheddar Gorge, Somerset images

3. Cheddar Gorge, Somerset

The name Cheddar comes from the cheddar cheese for those of you wondering. This is an insanely beautiful place. It has a drop of 137m and is home to the Britain’s oldest skeleton to have ever been found (which if it interests you).

4. Devon

England has many beautiful landscapes and one of the most picturesque is the one that decorates the green fields and the golden beaches of Devon. Summer is perhaps one of the best times to cross the English Channel and visit the United Kingdom, and without doubt as soon as the sun shines and the temperature rises a little Devonshire will begin to shine.

To plan a good British summer, we propose a trip to Devon County. It is in the south-west of England, surrounded by beautiful destinations such as Dorset, Somerset and Cornwall. These English lands were occupied by the Celtic Dumnonii tribes from the Iron Age. Green fields and extensive beaches decorated with cliffs have become over the centuries in ports, villages and spas.

North Devon is very varied but is usually the most chosen when it comes to spending time with friends or family. It has sandy beaches with natural pools, in many you can swim or surf and also, inland, there are green valleys. South Devon offers a beautiful coastline and a beautiful internal landscape with ancient villages.

Take a tour of Sidmouth, Torquay (here is a fantastic cave full of labyrinths), Totnes or Exeter with its great Gothic cathedral and its two thousand years of history. There are free tours of the old town and its underground passages, an old castle, shopping streets and a canal for canoeing.

Plymouth is your destination if you like everything nautical because it is one of the most beautiful natural harbors in the whole world. Do not miss the Smeaton Tower, the history of Francis Drake, the Gin Distillery or the National Aquarium. On the other hand, if you like nature more then the destination is Dartmoor and for coastal landscapes that take your breath away is Exmoor.

Compton Castle is in the south of Devon and is an old fortified house of the fourteenth century. A survivor of medieval England. Babbacombe Cliff Railway comes and goes from Oddicombe beach. Branscombe Beach is part of the famous Jurassic Coast, World Heritage, east of Devon, in Seaton. Nearby is the Shingle, with natural rock pools and many trails.

Start Point Lighthouse is a 150-year-old historic lighthouse on the south coast of Devon. Castillo Drogo is one of the youngest castles and around it there are other historical attractions such as Powderham Castle or Buckfast Abbey. The climate in Devon is unpredictable so one minute the sun shines and the next one clouds and some drops fall.

Do you already want to travel. Devon is accessible by train from many parts of the UK and in fact, the train offers you the most picturesque routes. You can take the Paddington Line or the Waterloo Line and if you prefer the bus as a National Express service.

5. Isles of Scilly

Half an hour, only half an hour is what it takes to leave the continent and find yourself in paradise. Indeed, the Isles of Scilly is one of the most fascinating excursions that can be made in Cornwall in the southernmost region of England. There are several options to get to St Mary's, the largest of the islands, by sea via Penzance, or by plane from the Newquay airport.

The landscape that embraces you is a perfect blend of Caribbean island, with its white sand beaches and turquoise blue water, and the typical English taverns (pubs) or seafood restaurants of typically English architecture. While it is true that Saint Mary's is the largest and most visited of the islands, Tresco is the most famous and unique.

Its main attraction is the Tresco Abbey Gardens, founded in 1834 on the land that occupied an old Benedictine monastery. Enjoy an Indian summer on the Isles of Scilly with glorious autumnal walks, a month-long food festival, abundant wildlife and spectacular scenery. Sail from Penzance or fly from Land’s End, Newquay or Exeter and discover how autumn can be the best time to build a love affair with these islands.

6. Castell Coch, Wales

It is a 19th-century Gothic castle which was revived. The spot chosen for its construction was on a Welsh hillside and on top of the remains of a 13th-century castle. Cool for some, not for many. Travelers will be able to relate as the place reminds of eastern European forest.

7. Birmingham

Birmingham is located in the West Midlands, about 180 kilometers northwest of London. Located in Victoria Square, Town hall looks entirely like a Greek or Roman temple. Beside it is the Simphony Hall, the most important theater in Birmingham. It is one of the best concert halls that we can find in the United Kingdom. They are two of the most emblematic buildings of the city.

Art Museum has the largest collection of pre-Raphaelite paintings and drawings in the world, some of them with more than 400,000 years of history. Aston Hall is a Jacobean-style mansion that can be found in Aston Park, on the outskirts of the city. It is one of the most visited tourist spots in Birmingham.

Cadbury World is one of the most visited places in the city. We find it in the area of ​​Bournville, and inside you will know everything related to this famous chocolate and its products. The balti is a dish of curry cooked and served in a flat-bottomed metal pot. It was created here in Birmingham, and the best place to try it is in Balti Triangle.

The word balti alludes to the metal pot, and in this area there are more than 50 restaurants specializing in this typical dish. You can eat both in restaurants and pubs, for example the classic English fish and chips, the English breakfast with eggs, bacon, sausages, toast and a well-loaded coffee, sandwiches of all kinds, pudding, roast beef and, how no, afternoon tea with pasta, traditional desserts and beers.

You will also see clothes and food stores, almost all of them exotic. National Sea Life Center Birmingham is one of the best aquariums we can see in Britain. Inside the aquarium is the Sensorama Cine 4D, a spectacular film about all marine species.

Drayton Manor Theme Park is one of the best theme parks in Britain. Russian mountains, ferris wheels and all kinds of attractions await you on the outskirts of the city. It is the best leisure option for those who come with family and children. There are many options for shopping here. The cheapest can be found in the Bullring Markets and the weekend markets of Digbeth and Custard Factory.

Birmingham has a lively nightlife with theaters, jazz clubs, restaurants, Victorian pubs, clubs. In the center we find the best areas to go out, especially Broad Street, although lately people prefer Brindleyplace, an urbanized area next to the city's canal. Do not forget about Jewelery Quarter, the neighborhood of jewelers, or Saint Paul Square.

Less than an hour away by car from Birmingham you can visit the city of Nottingham, with its famous Sherwood Forest and the stories of Robin Hood. A little closer, to the east, you have to visit Coventry. To the south, near the border with Wales, we find Gloucester and Cheltenham. To the west the greatest attraction can be in Shrewsbury, which is just past Telford.

8. Pistyll Rhaeadr Waterfalls, Wales

The waterfall is some 240ft in height. It falls over in three stages off of the cliff’s face. In order to make the most out of the scenery therein, there is a B&B and also a café should you feel like exploring around.

9. Snowdonia, North Wales

True to its suggestive name, this destination offers beach and mountain astrotourism without leaving the first National Park named in Wales. The Snowdonia National Park is the second area in Wales designated as Dark Sky Reserve. These magical reserves are scarce and unique places in the world to practice astrotourism. On a clear night in Snowdonia you can see the Milky Way, all the main constellations, nebulas and shooting stars.

The name of the park is traditionally applied to a smaller and higher area of ​​northern Gwynedd around Snowdon Mountain, while the park includes an area of ​​land more than twice that size and extends south to the region of Meirionnydd.

In addition to the beauty and charm of its high mountains, Snowdonia is a delightfully varied landscape of steep river gorges, waterfalls and green valleys. Oak, ash, rowan and hazelnut forests are scattered throughout the park, while the beautiful Dyfi, Mawddach and Dwyryd estuaries and 37 kilometers of coastline and sandy beaches contribute to the overall diversity of the landscape.

Together with The Dark Sky Parks of Brecon Beacons and Elan Valley Estate, Snowdonia is one of the darkest and recommended places for astrotourism left in the southern United Kingdom.

Portmeirion is a flamboyant village meant to look like an Italian hotspot and then turned out to be true with focused planning. You will find it overlooking the Irish Sea. However, the weather is not very friendly.

10. Helvellyn, Lake District National Park

Lake District National Park hides one of the great secrets of the United Kingdom. Among the most popular walking routes are the peaks of Helvellyn, Fairfield and Old Man of Coninston. If you are one of those who prefer the flat paths and enjoy the lakes, rivers and waterfalls, your favorite places will be the lakes of Windermere, Grasmere, Rydal and Keswick.

If you want to travel the Lake District National Park from end to end, there is a path for it. It's called Cumbria Way. There are 112 kilometers that are usually done in five stages that will take you from Ulverston to Carlisle. In addition, in the small village of Staveley, you will find the largest cycling shop in the United Kingdom.

From international restaurants (Thai, Italian, Chinese or Spanish), to traditional pubs here you can taste the local cuisine or have a craft beer.

11. Durham

When on a trip by car through England, if you are heading towards Scotland, climbing the east side of the British island, you will have the opportunity to visit the beautiful medieval city of Durham. You will find it almost on the border between England and Scotland, 222 kilometers south of Edinburgh, very close to the city of Newcastle.

The medieval city of Durham is characterized and impressed by its spectacular location on the rocky hill that rises over a meander of the River Wear. The central axis of the medieval city is Saddler Street, which you will access through a steep street after crossing the historic Elvet Bridge.

Durham Town Hall built in 1850 is going to be the market building that will most arouse our interest. During the Victorian era, an old medieval building was used to build the new Durham Market. Among other points of interest in Durham you will find in the great meadow known as Palace Green, which is the monumental neuralgic center of the city, facing the majestic Durham Cathedral.

Durham Castle was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. At present, in the Almshouses we find a café and an art gallery.

Penshaw Monument, Sunderland images

12. Penshaw Monument, Sunderland

It was built in the year 1884 and was originally intended as the half-size version of the famous Greek monument called The Temple of Hephaestus. By 2011, guests could climb the staircase to the top which is spiral in nature.

13. Glasgow, Scotland

Glasgow Cathedral and its necropolis is the most liked of the city while visiting Scotland. As for the necropolis, it is located next to it, on a hill overlooking Glasgow. It is characterized by being a Victorian cemetery where some 3,500 funerary monuments still stand. George Square is the main square of Glasgow, where the Town Hall is located.

The Street art is becoming fashionable in many European cities and Glasgow is no exception. There is a quite impressive urban art route.

The Mackintosh lighthouse was built by a young architect as the warehouse of a printing press. One of the main characteristics of the tower is that it contained about 14,000 liters of water in case of fire and that it has a spectacular central spiral staircase. In the 1980s the building was renovated inside to house the Scottish architectural museum.

14. Beinn Dorain, Scotland

Head to Beinn Dorain, a mountain easily recognizable and admired by all the travelers who cross the Highlands in the direction of Fort William. It is one of the most familiar summits of this area since it has a interesting pyramid shape covered with grass. From Bridge of Orchy you can easily access the hill that later leads to its summit.

People who are used to hiking regularly on the mountain or take part in sports and healthy living in general, should not have problems. For this type of routes it is essential to use trekking boots, sturdy and with ankle support.

Fingal's Cave, The Inner Hebrides, Scotland images

15. Fingal's Cave, The Inner Hebrides, Scotland

The place is made of hexagon shape pillars and is situated on the uninhabited island of Staffa in Scotland. Yup, you guessed it right, this calls for a boat ride.

16. Isle of Skye, The Inner Hebrides, Scotland

The Isle of Skye, located next to the west coast of Scotland, is the largest of the islands that make up the Inner Hebrides. It is known for its extraordinary natural beauty and fascinating history steeped in Gaelic culture. Its history, its legends, its landscapes, its music and its poetry make this island, without doubt, a magical place.

Loch Coruisk, located in the very heart of the Cuillin Mountains, is without a doubt the most spectacular and remote of all the Scottish lakes. Accessible only by boat or on foot, this lake is surrounded by some of the most impressive mountains in the country. This magical corner is wrapped in ancient legends according to one of which a Kelpie - or water horse in Scottish mythology - inhabits its waters.

Explore the northern part of the island known as Quiraing, one of the most spectacular geological areas of Skye. This enchanted landscape with its incredible views, its atmospheric corners and its strange rock formations, has the appearance of a natural surrealist Gothic cathedral.

17. Glencoe, Glen Coe Valley, Scotland

Glencoe, considered one of the most spectacular valleys of the Highlands, is an evocative place for many reasons. Impressive peaks rise into the sky in interesting geological formations fascinating the traveler with its formidable presence. Its countless mountains, whose enormous rocky walls hide mysterious valleys, will delight any hiker.

Hiking in Scotland involves towering mountains to conquer and hundreds of trails on the coast, forests and the city to explore. This remote hanging valley, nestled between the impressive peaks of Glencoe, is famous for having served as a hiding place for cattle thieves and their stolen cattle during the time when this place was dominated by the MacDonald clan of Glencoe.

Explore Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the United Kingdom. Climb the so-called tourist route to the Lochan Meall An t-Suidhe lagoon. In the Kintail mountains is the dramatic Glen Shiel valley, surrounded by majestic peaks. In the southern part of this valley explore one of its most beautiful mountain ranges, with seven peaks joined by the mountain known as The Saddle, one of the most beautiful ascents of Scotland and whose conquest offers fantastic views of this wonderful region.

18. Loch Ness, Scotland

To the north of Scotland is the region called Highlands, the Highlands of the Celts, where many of the legends and mysteries of Scotland, such as Loch Ness.

We got up early to go to Loch Ness with the intention of photographing the first lights of dawn. We approach to the Urquhart Castle, located right on the edge of the lake. We return again to Inverness to take the route to Mount Cairngorm. We stop for breakfast next to Loch Morlich, a place destined for water sports in the mountains.

We passed through Glenmore National Park, which turned out to be another Loch Lommond but without lakes. In the heart of the Glenmore Forest Park is the winter resort of Cairgorm, one of the most important centers of winter sports. We climbed up to the facilities, just as the first snowflakes of the day began to fall.

We are now looking for the so-called Whiskey Trail and Castle Trail. In this area we find farms dedicated to the breeding of the typical hairy cow and wide cereal growing areas populating the Scottish countryside in Advie. We decided to go north and in Banffshire, we stopped at the entrance to Ballindalloch Castle. In the middle of the afternoon we arrived at Lossiemouth. East Beach is located at the entrance to the village.

19. Achmelvich, Scotland

By looking at it, you will tell yourself that this should be somewhere on a small Indonesian island. But you will be disappointed because it is not. Rather it is situated at the top of the UK. Ever heard of Hermit’s Castle, well, it is located here only which happens to be Europe's tiniest castle.

20. Smoo Cave, Scottish Highlands

This is a freshwater cave engulfed by spectacular sea and packs a 20m waterfall. You can go for hitchhiking on a boat ride to visit the inner chambers. Doesn't this sound exciting?
Kalyan Kalyan Author
and yet what purple hours can one snatch from that grey slow-moving thing we call Time.

Oscar Wilde.

It's not very far from continental Europe from the south coast of Britain. Just twenty miles of grey sea separates England from France. For the British, that distance has always been both too near and too far. This year, with Brexit looming and the fiftieth anniversary of the partial decriminalization of homosexuality, it might be appropriate to remind ourselves what escape to Europe meant for generations of gay artists; and in particular, that exemplar of 'gay martyrdom', Oscar Wilde.

Wilde was a leading force in that cultural sea-change which – very gradually – led towards the equal rights enjoyed by LGBTQ people in the U.K. today. He is remembered for his sparkling plays and stories as well as his witty epigrams and conversation, and as a leader in the cult of Aestheticism or Decadence.

Many have drawn a line connecting the zeitgeist of the 1880s and 90s to that of the 1960s and 70s – from Oscar Wilde straight to David Bowie – and the comparison is apt, from the febrile creativity to the sexual experimentation and gender fluidity.

So who were the Decadents? Well, they dared to separate Art from Morality. They mined the exotic, the perverse and the shocking for their subjects, combined with exquisite sensibility and luscious delicacy. As Rohase Piercy explains in her GoodReads blog, Sherlock Holmes - a Decadent Detective?, 'the cult of Decadence was unraveling the frayed edges of society with its pursuit of social, spiritual and sexual ambiguity.'

France still welcomes British visitors today, of course, but at that time its liberal laws made it a beacon of freedom for gay men. Dieppe itself housed a virtual colony of expatriate artists. Many of these had fled abroad after the Wilde scandal in 1895.

So in the summer season, you might have observed a multitude of such ‘refugees’ strolling by the absinthe-colored sea or sipping their drinks in the cafés – probably being regarded askance by more conventional British tourists and the French bourgeoisie.

In 1897, Wilde was released from prison after two years hard labor. His social standing in England had been shattered beyond repair: there was no possible way he could remain in the country. He arrived in Dieppe on the steamer Tamise and stayed first at the ‘Hotel Sandwich’ in Dieppe.

panama hats images

Cuttingly avoided by polite society and discouraged even from sitting down to dine by the restaurant owners, he found this ostracism unendurable and moved further down the coast. From Berneval-sur-Mer he would make frequent visits to Dieppe. He had adopted the (not-camp-at-all) alias of Sebastian Melmoth. It was at Berneval that he finished his famous Ballad of Reading Gaol.

Relaxing in the Dieppe sunshine at precisely the same moment in history was the artist Aubrey Beardsley. Turning a mere twenty-five that summer, he was trying desperately to shore up his fragile health in order to be physically capable of working. Beardsley had first contracted tuberculosis at the age of seven, suffering repeated bouts of the debilitating illness from the age of seventeen and often hemorrhaging dangerously after the slightest exertion.

Despite this, his genius shone through in his highly influential line drawings. Beardsley and Wilde had collaborated in the past, with Aubrey providing the striking but risqué artwork for Oscar's play Salome.

After Wilde's highly-publicised downfall, this association had affected Beardsley's reputation, leading to his dismissal from his post as Art Editor of The Yellow Book literary magazine. By 1897, his health made it difficult for him even to complete outstanding commissions, let alone take on new projects, and he was in increasingly severe financial difficulties.

Wilde hoped Beardsley would design a frontispiece for the Ballad – a request to which Aubrey agreed in a manner which implied 'he will never do it'. The fact was the artist had to dissociate himself from his former partner. Beardsley’s poverty was forcing him these days to depend on a quarterly allowance from an enemy of Wilde’s, Marc Raffalovich. And so further collaboration between these two ultimate definers and influencers of Decadent style was not to be.

However, we do know that Wilde met Beardsley in Dieppe in August and went shopping: 'I have made Aubrey buy a hat more silver than silver: he is quite wonderful in it'. Just pause for a moment and imagine that long-ago summer day when Oscar Wilde, strolling beside the thin figure of Aubrey Beardsley who leaned on a cane as he walked, found a shop in Dieppe to buy a hat 'more silver than silver'. But apart from that, the ailing artist was forced to keep his distance.

He was even observed ducking down an alley to avoid a chance meeting in the street. Oscar sighed later, 'The worst thing you can do for a person of genius is to help him: that way lies destruction.'

Beardsley’s health continued to deteriorate and he removed to Menton on the Riviera in the hope that the warm, dry climate would help his condition. A mere six months after that summer in Dieppe, he was beyond recovery. A final attempt at drawing, against doctor’s orders, demonstrated his weakness.

His mother found him lying with his face to the wall, the pen he had cast aside in frustration standing up from the floorboards like an arrow, the nib stuck in the wood. He died a few weeks later on 16th March 1898. Oscar deplored his premature death and said of him, 'There is something macabre and tragic that one who had added another terror to life should have died at the age of a flower.'

Later that Autumn, Wilde made his way to Naples to reunite with his lover – and nemesis - Lord Alfred Douglas or 'Bosie'. He spent his remaining two years in Italy and France, drinking and smoking, 'feasting with panthers', spending any money he had on Bosie and, sadly, not completing any new literary work. He died of meningitis in Paris in 1900. His last words? 'My wallpaper and I are fighting a duel to the death. One or the other of us has to go.'

This post has been contributed by Charlie Raven

Read 'A Case of Domestic Pilfering' by Rohase Piercy and Charlie Raven to get a feel of 1890s London, a decadent society and the twists and turns of a hilarious LGBTQ Sherlock Holmes mystery.
Kalyan Kalyan Author
With its arsenal of shrines, temples, and palaces, India is one of the most fascinating cities in the east. It is also a country of fairs and festivals, celebrating thousands of them every year. Among all the deities, Shani or Saturn is the most feared, but Indian literature also abounds with glorification that praises his power.

Each deity or planet can affect both positively and negatively. In the case of Shani, these two peaks reach stratospheric heights or abyssal depths. India itself is particularly influenced by Shani. In Vedic Mythology Shani is the legendary evil king. He is associated with death, poverty, illness, separation, sadness, and perversion.

The figure of Shani is one of the most complex, in the Indian religion. The main difficulty encountered by scholars is to discern what part of the cult belongs to the original figure and what part is due to later modern influences. His relationship with Brihaspati or Jupiter is also shrouded in legends, which is evident in India, Greece, and Rome during the times of Pontius Pilate and celebration of Saturnalia.

In other mythologies, Saturn was an agricultural deity who was said to have reigned over the world, when humans enjoyed the spontaneous generosity of the land and were in a state of innocence. Saturn was seen as the deity of generation, abundance, wealth, agriculture, and renewal, who had taught the Aborigines to cultivate the earth, according to its ancient attributes of civilizing deity.

It was also said that under his reign humanity had known a golden age and, therefore, Saturn was part of the most archaic religion. In the oldest images, he was represented with the head or all covered with a veil. This trait is in accordance with the character of Varuna and also is to the Nordic god Odin. Like Jupiter, one day of the week was dedicated to him and conserved in the English word Saturday.

Journey Through The Temples of Saturn or Shani

Shani is one of the Navagraha and is also known as Sanaiscara. Shani is a demigod and is represented as the son of Surya and his wife Chhaya. So he is also known as Chayyaputra. Yama, the god of death is said to be his younger brother.

He is depicted as dark, who is dressed in black, holding a sword, arrows and two daggers in the company of a Crow. In many different ages, both idol worshipers and adherents have erected buildings considered in their entirety as temples or so-called mandirs.

In fact, the term used by the Indians to define them is mandir, which means mansion or enclosure of a god. The presence of the deity in the temple is believed to be a nexus of union between the divine and the human world and allowed the latter to relate to them through various rituals.

As evidence of the exclusivity of ancient temples, we find that the worship altar was placed, not within the temple itself, but in front of the entrance. Here were consecrated the most solemn ceremonies, of which the temple was the visible symbol and the material example.

The Indian temples continued to evolve without any foreign influences. New architectural forms continued to be developed, such as covered kiosks in front of access doors and more ornate columns styles. Shani temples are present throughout India. The exact location of the temple was decided for religious reasons. It could be the birthplace or mythical burial of a deity. The orientation of the temple could be decided to align it with places of religious significance, such as a neighboring temple, the position of the sun or a star.

For example, some temples are lined up in such a way that twice a year the rays of the rising sun illuminate the statues of the deity in the Sancta Sanctorum. Some temples, however, are lined, with an axis running roughly east to west. The construction of the temple is preceded by a series of complex foundational rituals.

The use of stone, limestone, and sandstone to raise the temples was only to emphasize and assure their purpose of serving as eternal dwellings for the gods. It also distinguished them from the buildings for the use by mortals, which were generally raised with mud and wood. However, in the early days' temples were built only of clay and other perishable materials. The stone blocks could come from a quarry near the temple under construction or transport from distant places of extraction.

To create the foundations of the temples, ditches were dug into the sand, which was then filled with stone slabs. The walls and other structures were erected with huge blocks of different shapes and sizes. Each block is carved to achieve a perfect union with the adjacent prismatic blocks. The inside of the walls was filled with uneven stones of waste, and earth.

Once the temple structure is completed, the rough surface of the stone blocks was polished to make it smooth. If the stone was of poor quality to carve, it was covered with a layer of mortar. Paints were usually a mixture of pigments bound with any adhesive, possibly natural rubber. In most temples, the focus was on the image of worship and so a statue of the temple deity was placed.

To emphasize the sacred nature of the sanctuary the idol would mostly be kept in total darkness. If in the early days the sanctuary was at the bottom of the building, in the later periods, the idols would also be kept in public view within the temple, although isolated from the outside world by barriers. The Indians believed that the gods were present in their images, flooding the temple with its sacred power.

The symbols of places in India or parts of the cosmos complemented the mythical geography, which was also present in the architecture of the temple. The images enhanced the magical effect of rituals and perpetuated it even after its completion. Due to their religious nature, the decorative motifs showed an idealized version of reality, that is emblematic of the purpose of the temple, rather than the authentic context.

The temples of the antiquity were considered to be the room of the mythical deified gods and goddesses whose names they carried, and whose service consecrated the buildings. Although the immediate vicinity of these temples was used as sites for general assembly and public ceremony, there were always inner enclosures. And in which, it was said, the presence of their deity was manifested.

Here only consecrated priests could enter to make offerings to the deity and recreate mythological passages during festivals. The requirements for the priesthood varied over time and between different cults to the gods. The priests were obliged to observe the strict standards of ritual purity in the sacred space. Mostly, they shaved their heads and bodies, washed several times a day and only wore clean clothes.

Many cults imposed additional restrictions related to their mythology, such as the prohibition of eating the flesh of animals associated with divinity. In the old ages, many women were believed to exercise the priesthood, but their presence in the clergy was reduced drastically in the middle ages. The ritual of the daily offering was very similar throughout India, although the exact sequence of events is uncertain.

At dawn, the priest opened the door and entered the sanctuary carrying a candle to light the room, after which he prostrated before the image of the deity reciting hymns of praise. Then he would remove the figure of the deity from the podium, dress it by replacing the garment of the previous day and anoint it with oil and paint.

At some point, the priest also offered him food, such as fruits and vegetables. It was the sustenance of which people thought that the god only consumed the essence. This Prasad was then distributed. Other offering rituals took place at noon and at dusk, although the god's Sancta Sanctorum was not reopened. Other ceremonies were also made daily, including specific rituals.

These rituals were seen as necessary for the deity to maintain the divine order of the universe. This is particularly true during the Saturdays when people come in droves to praise the deity. The people also went to the sanctuary with their concerns and needs hoping to find refuge and comfort. Sometimes they went to confess their sin and seek the forgiveness in order to be numbered among the righteous.

On days of particular religious importance, daily rituals were replaced by festivals. These festivals were held at different intervals, although the majority were annual, with a temporality based on the civil calendar that was very different from the present one. Therefore, although many festivals had a seasonal origin, their dates do not coincide with our calendar.

The ceremonies of the festivals included the recreation of mythological passages or the accomplishment of other symbolic acts. Ceremonies like this took place only within the precincts of the temple, but other festivals involved the visit to the temple of the deity. In many occasions, a procession was carried out with the priests carrying the divine image.

The divinities involved in a festival received much more abundant offerings than in daily rituals. Some temples had sacred animals that were believed to be manifestations of the deity, just as this manifested itself in their worship images. These animals were kept in the temple and worshiped for a variable time, that could be a year or the whole life of the animal.

At the end of this time, they were replaced by a new animal of the same species, selected by a priest or based on specific marks, which were supposed to indicate their divine nature. These animals were not considered as especially sacred, but only as a species associated with a deity that was represented by its form. Although there is no evidence of this practice during the modern era, it was assumed that the primitive cult of Saturn also demanded human sacrifices.

At the beginning of the modern ages, and possibly earlier, festival processions had become an opportunity for people to consult the priest to address issues ranging from locating a lost object to the best choice for an issue. The priests interpreted the movements of the sacred animals or returned the answers in writing or words, that the deity supposedly transmitted to them. The Indians also interacted with the divinities through offerings, ranging from simple pieces of jewelry to animal offerings to pray for a good harvest or for a child delivery.

The question arises as to how did ancient people know that Saturn existed without telescopes? How did they know that it was a star that exploded and formed a Black Sun? Well, there is no answer officially. It is not known. These symbols are like another oopart or out-of-place artifact.

This is the key to the question, which means that our ancestors knew more than what appears in the books. In many ancient beliefs, Saturn was used as a marker for when the position of the Sun would change, simply to mark the most enlightened nights and the darkest days or solstices.
Kalyan Kalyan Author